Image source, PA Media
Image caption, Thousands of teachers joined rallies across Scotland on 24 November
Strikes have disrupted everything from train services to postal deliveries and teaching in schools.
More workers are expected to walk out, as demands grow for better working conditions and pay increases to keep up with rising prices.
Nurses in England, Wales and Northern Ireland are set to strike on 15 December and 20 DecemberThe Royal College of Nurses wants a rise of 5% above the Retail Price Index (RPI) measure of inflation – currently 14%The government in England says this year’s pay award – a 4.75% average increase – is in line with the independent NHS Pay Review Body recommendationRail workers first called strike days in June, with further walkouts planned across December and January The National Union of Rail, Maritime and Transport Workers (RMT) wants a pay offer reflecting the rising cost of living – and a guarantee of no compulsory job lossesRail-industry bosses say changes need to be agreed to afford pay increases and modernise the railwayPostal workers plan strikes on 9, 11, 14, 15, 23 and 24 DecemberDeliveries are affected, with the last days for Christmas post now 12 December for second class and 16 December for first classRoyal Mail has offered a pay deal it says is worth up to 9% over 18 months – but with inflation at 11.1%, the Communication Workers Union wants more The CWU also objects to proposed changes to working conditions, including compulsory Sunday workingTeachers in Scotland walked out on 24 November, with further strikes in December, January and FebruaryA 6.85% increase for the lowest paid was rejected, with teachers arguing for 10%Teaching unions in England and Wales are balloting members over pay, which could mean further strikesTens of thousands of staff at 150 UK universities walked out on three days in NovemberThe University and College Union wants a pay rise worth either 2% above RPI inflation, or 12%, whichever is higher, pension benefits restored and “excessive workloads” tackledAn increase in pay “puts jobs at risk”, the Universities and College Employers Association saysGround-handling staff for Menzies Aviation at Heathrow Airport will strike for 72 hours from 16 DecemberAirlines likely to be affected are Air Canada, American Airlines, Lufthansa, Swiss Air, Air Portugal, Austrian Airlines, Qantas, Egypt Air, Aer Lingus and FinnairThe Unite union says cargo workers were offered a backdated 9.5% pay increase and a further 1% from January 2023, but baggage handlers have been offered only a flat-rate increase and face a real-terms pay cutDriving examiners will hold rolling strikes from 13 December to 16 JanuaryThe Public and Commercial Services Union is calling for a 10% pay rise, better pensions, job security and no cuts to redundancy termsThe government says the strike might affect driving tests but not theory tests Who else is considering industrial action?
Paramedics, call handlers and other staff at half of England’s ambulance services have voted to strike over payAbout 100,000 civil servants have voted to strike across different government departmentsJunior doctors in England, represented by the British Medical Association, are planning to hold a ballot in January, over a pay deal which will give them 2% this yearThree days of strikes, involving 2,000 Metroline bus drivers in London, have been called off while a pay offer is consideredHave any disputes been resolved?
Some workers have settled disputes:
How many days have been lost to strikes?
In September, 205,000 working days were lost to strikes, according to the Office for National Statistics.
The latest monthly total remains significantly less than the 11,716,000 days lost in September 1979 – the month in which strikes peaked during the “winter of discontent”.
Does the public support strike action?
A poll at the end of October by Savanta ComRes found that 60% generally support workers taking industrial action, with 33% opposed.
Asked about strikes over pay and conditions, support varied widely between different industries.